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Acquiring expensive equipment and their maintenance to detect the levels of these harmful gasses in developing countries would not be feasible due to high cost. Li, Pakistan that detects the levels of nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide concentrations in the air. Various efforts in biotech sector have been dedicated to develop heat, cold, drought, and salinity-tolerant crops.

These crops are anticipated to cope with the aftermath of climate change that results from global warming. The term synthetic biology dates back to The first report that is regarded as a landmark in this regard was originated around Later, the so-called pre-genomic era started between the s and s that mainly include the techniques such as molecular cloning and PCR. After this era, the synthetic biology field progressed with a faster pace. Especially, during the last decade i.

FAO: Biotechnology in Food and Agriculture: Conference 11

For instance, RNAi- mediated gene knockdown, integration via homologous recombination, Zinc finger technology, transcription- activator-like effector nucleases TALENs and homing meganucleases. However, most of these methods have either low efficiency or results in off-target toxicity. Besides they are costly and time-consuming to engineer thus limiting their widespread use, particularly its application in developing countries where the resources are already very limited.

Very recently, a new genome editing system called CRISPR-Cas9 was introduced and its potentiality to edit the genomes of human cells has been already reported This system has thrilled the synthetic biology community, and since then it has been used for genetic engineering of a variety of organisms. The reasons for its popularity are its accuracy and also the fact that it is cheaper and faster than the previous genome editing system. It is anticipated and currently seems like it will revolutionize the synthetic biology paradigm. These guidelines are regularly under development in developed countries.

However, the formulations of new laws do not always guarantee the proper receiving of genetically modified organism- based products as the inhabitant of different parts of the world react differently to the modern biotechnology The use CRISPR-Cas9 for genome editing of plants and microorganisms is already in practice, and biotech companies around the world are quickly adopting it.

The application of genome editing methods is crucial in solving the human health problems.

How the Human Genome Project Opened up the World of Microbes

In the health area, many unresolved health issues still exist in humans such as AIDS, hepatitis and different kinds of cancers. The transferable disease such is AIDS is creating much chaos in developing nations such is in Africa, where the awareness of the public and resources to handle its epidemic are less.

These developing countries also face the food shortage problem; that can also be addressed by application of these latest synthetic biology methods that can create robust crops as discussed above. Before its use in a routine way in these countries, laws and regulations needed to be developed, implemented and strictly observed. How much global ill health is attributable to environmental factors?

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The global burden of disease due to outdoor air pollution. J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 68 : Smith KR, Mehta S. The burden of disease from indoor air pollution in developing countries: comparison of estimates. Int J Hyg Environ Health. The World health report - shaping the future.

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Animals in a bacterial world, a new imperative for the life sciences

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Genomic Advances in Drug Discovery & Development - Lon Cardon, Ph.D.

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How does biotechnology help us?

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Biosens Bioelectron. Traditional methods of genetic improvement such as classical mutagenesis and conjugation have been the basis of industrial starter culture development in bacteria a culture used to start a food fermentation is known as a starter culture , while hybridisation has been used in the improvement of yeast strains which are widely applied industrially in baking and brewing applications.

This involves the production of mutants by the exposure of microbial strains to mutagenic chemicals or ultraviolet rays to induce changes in their genomes. Improved strains thus produced are selected on the basis of specific properties such as improved flavour-producing ability or resistance to bacterial viruses.

Such mutants may, however, show undesirable secondary mutations which can influence the behaviour of cultures during fermentation. This is a natural process whereby genetic material is transferred among closely related microbial species as a result of physical contact between the donor and the recipient microorganism. Conjugational gene exchange allows both plasmid-localised and chromosomal gene transfer a plasmid is a circular self-replicating non-chromosomal DNA molecule found in many bacteria, capable of transfer between bacterial cells of the same species, and occasionally of different species.

Sexual reproduction in yeasts, and thus genetic recombination, has led to improvements in yeasts. For example, crossing of haploid yeast strains with excellent gassing properties and with good drying properties could yield a novel strain with both good gassing and drying properties.

Recombinant DNA approaches have been used for genetic modification of bacterial, yeast and mould strains to promote expression of desirable genes, to hinder the expression of others, to alter specific genes or to inactivate genes so as to block specific pathways. The successful application of genetic modification for food bioprocessing applications requires the development and use of food grade vectors, i.

GM yeasts appropriate for brewing and baking applications have been approved for use e. None of these GM yeasts are, however, used commercially. The genetic characterisation of microbial strains through the use of molecular diagnostic techniques can contribute tremendously to the understanding of fermentation processes.